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柴油液压:柴油不需要

由一个.J. 沃尔夫 2021年11月18日

德国的技术在美国没有达到标准.S.

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灰色和红色的内燃机车拉着车厢
Streamlined diesel locomotive with high cab sits outside brick shop building
Former Rio Gr和e ML-4000 diesel-hydraulic 4003, built by Krauss-Maffei, rests at Roseville, 加州., 2月. 1964年8月,等待新东家南太平洋公司的服务. 不西姆斯的照片

North American railroads never found a broad use for freight service diesel locomotives with a hydraulic drive, 这让它们成为了“不使用柴油发动机”的又一个例子.”

Germany was the early leader in developing 和 building diesel locomotives that utilized direct-drive transmissions. Those early models in the 1930s incorporated torque converters 和 gears in lieu of electric motors geared to the axles, 这在美国是一种常态.S. 乘火车旅行. 在美国,人们对这类单位的兴趣有限.S., although Plymouth 和 Whitcomb built small industrial direct-drive 单位 from the late 1930s through the mid-1950s. Budd RDC cars represented the most successful 和 widespread application of hydraulic drives in the country.

在20世纪50年代末,两者都有 丹佛 & 里约热内卢Gr和e西方 和 Southern Pacific were interested in finding motive power that developed more power than the 2,400 h.p. EMD的SD24s和Alco的标准偏差15s. 两路靠近 德国的Krauss-Maffei 设计这种使用液压驱动的机车, 和, 作为一个结果, 每个公司在1961年交付了三辆原型车. Designated as ML-4000s, the 单位 had full-width carbodies 和 high-mounted turret type cabs. 每台机车有两个2,000小时.p., 16气罐, 1,585 rpm Maybach MD 870 engines coupled to Voith transmissions with drive lines geared directly to the axles. The three-axle trucks were of German 设计 和 unlike any made in the U.S.

Among the perceived advantages of hydraulic drive locomotives were full tractive effort when starting; no wheelslip under load with no subsequent overheating of the type experienced with traction motors; simplified controls; 和 easier maintenance. The Rio Gr和e initially believed that its three ML-4000s in multiple-unit operation could do the work of eight conventional 1,750 h.p. 单位.

D&RGW modified the 单位 to improve the intake of fresh air through the road’s many tunnels, 和 it replaced the compressed-air multiple-unit controls with the electrically activated type that enabled them to operate with EMD models.

事实证明, the Krauss-Maffei 单位 required a high level of maintenance 和 were simply not rugged enough to meet the dem和s of heavy service over Rio Gr和e’s mountainous territory. 因为他们是名单上的孤儿,D&RGW found that they performed no better than the newly arriving GP30s, 1964年2月,这三条铁路都被南太平洋铁路公司收购, 这给了柴油-液压概念更长, 更看.

Krauss-Maffei ml - 4000(罩)

南太平洋基地 六个克劳斯-玛菲风帽原型机 在加州罗斯维尔市., where they were first utilized over Donner Pass 和 later down the San Joaquin Valley 和 over Tehachapi Pass. Not meeting expectations, all six were scrapped in September 1967. 甚至在他们的任期结束之前, SP was still interested in diesel hydraulic locomotives with 设计 improvements to meet the railroad’s requirements.

Krauss-Maffei ml - 4000(罩)

灰色和红色的内燃机车拉着车厢
Hood-type hydraulic 9014 lugs a train on the San Joaquin Valley line at Fresno, 加州.在1964年9月,牲畜车在车头处. 戈登Glattenberg照片

Southern Pacific next wanted a diesel-hydraulic more closely aligned with current U.S. 机车设计实践. 特别是, 它需要一个道路切换类型的主体与传统的卡车, 多元的能力, 美国的中速原动机.S. 设计. Another requirement was that the locomotive not require special servicing facilities.

为此, 克劳斯-玛菲公司在1963年交付了15台,但他们仍然配备了两个2000小时的高速.p. 迈巴赫V-16引擎,与SP的设计偏好相反. As before, the engines were coupled to Voith direct-drive hydraulic transmissions. 卡车采用通用铸钢标准设计, 一种类型,也出现在六轴艾科柴油模型. The cab sported side windows that slanted toward the roof 和 trapezoidal-shaped windshields, 独一无二的你.S. 乘火车旅行. Taller exhaust vents were also incorporated to minimize air intake issues.

Like their predecessors, the road-switcher hydraulics were assigned to Roseville, 加州., 并在类似的地区使用, although four of the type were tested on iron-ore trains over Beaumont Hill in southern 加州ornia in 1964. 随着时间的推移, 安装维护问题, 传动轴易发生故障, 高速迈巴赫引擎也很麻烦.

结果,1968年11月,所有人都退休了. 前没有. 9010 was converted to a camera car to film SP’s right of way for use in a locomotive simulator for training purposes. It is undergoing restoration by the Pacific Locomotive Association at the Niles Canyon Railway.

艾可DH643

灰色和红色的内燃机车拉着车厢
Boxcars 和 reefers comprise much of the tonnage trailing DH643 9020 at Oil Junction on the northwest side of Bakersfield, 加州., 1965年5月. The “bloody nose” is still bright 和 clean on the eight-month-old unit. 戈登Glattenberg照片

With an eye on SP’s desired specifications for a road-switcher that employed a hydraulic transmission, 1964年,艾科设计并建造了三个DH643单元. 每组有2个2,150小时.p. 12-­­cylinder 251C engines coupled to German Voith hydraulic transmissions under a license agreement. 的原动力, SP 's Alco RS32s中使用的类型, faced opposite each other with the radiators in the middle of the carbody 和 the transmissions below. The drive shafts from the transmissions to the trucks were of a heavier 设计 than those employed in the Krauss-Maffei locomotives. The DH643s rode on a tri-mount truck that had been st和ard on Alco six-motor 单位 since 1950.

他们最初在SP上表现良好, ,据报道, they could haul twice the tonnage of a diesel-electric with the equivalent horsepower. 就像克劳斯-玛菲单位, the DH643s were based out of Roseville 和 primarily used on San Joaquin Valley runs. 他们经常与至少一个F7配对. 维修问题对铝矿石造成了很大的影响. 特别是, there were instances when brass flakes were noted in the truck gear boxes, 需要昂贵的修理.

No additional DH643s were ordered, 和 no other road expressed any interest. SP名单上的孤儿都在1972年退休了.

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