在航空公司和州际公路开始吸走铁路货运和客运业务之前——以及大型铁路合并形成今天更大的巨型系统——几乎每个大城市和城镇都有多条铁路服务. 托运人可以选择承运人在A点和B点之间运输货物. Passengers, too, had various railroads and trains to select from when planning a journey by rail.
就像其他公司在竞争激烈的市场中做生意一样, 铁路公司利用广告为他们的铁路建立一个公众形象，可以用来销售他们的服务. 通常, 这一形象被简洁地捕捉到一个口号-一些难忘的词或短语-或一个形象的商标, 在早期被称为先驱，但现在通常被称为标志. Both heralds and slogans were emblazoned in bold letters on the sides of freight cars, 在公共时间表和旅游小册子上有显著的特色, and even stenciled on the sides of bridges.
和其他产品一样, 最成功的铁路广告都经受住了时间的考验, remaining in the consciousness of enthusiasts long after the roads themselves faded into the past. Here is a look at some of the most memorable railroad advertising slogans and logos.
Competition between railroads was fierce in the eastern U.S., where many carriers served the region’s populated cities. Between New York City and Buffalo, for example, no fewer than five railroads vied for traffic.
One New York-Buffalo carrier, the Delaware, Lackawanna & 西方, 将从波科诺河运来的清洁无烟煤作为其广告挂钩，并在其燃料供应车中燃烧. 神话中的菲比·斯诺, a striking auburn-haired young woman dressed in white, 为清洁, 拉克万纳的快速服务, 她总是从火车上蒸汽牵引的旅客车厢里出来，衣服上没有一点煤烟或煤渣. 在许多促销活动中使用, 菲比:, “我赢得了我的名声和广泛的赞誉，拉克万纳的辉煌的名字，保持雪白的无烟煤道路上.” The jingles were originated in 1902 by Earnest Elmo Calkins, who later became a well-known New York advertising executive.
在东部，最激烈的铁路竞争莫过于宾夕法尼亚铁路公司和纽约中央铁路公司之间的竞争, 尤其是纽约和芝加哥之间的客运. 彭妮走的路比较近, meeting the Allegheny Mountains head on, 而纽约中央铁路则沿着山脉周围的河流和湖岸, making up in 速度 what it lacked in distance.
纽约中央铁路公司(New York Central)的时刻表和广告大力宣传其线路，称其对乘坐长途列车的旅客特别有利. The “Water Level Route – You Can Sleep” was Central’s memorable reference to its smooth, scenic route along the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, and through the Great Lakes region.
The Pennsylvania Railroad for a time billed itself as “The Standard Railroad of the World.“潘西的名字和标志都代表着这个关键的州.
东方航空巴尔的摩 & 俄亥俄州 also used its route as the basis for a slogan, matter-of-factly proclaiming it was in the business of “Linking 13 Great States with the Nation.”
纽黑文铁路, 在后来的几年里，它发现自己没有与其他铁路公司竞争, 但卡车和司机在平行的新英格兰公路上行驶, used clever phrases developed in-house by the railroad’s publicity department to get people’s attention. 为纽黑文客运服务做广告的广告牌经常出现在铁路途经的城镇中, and girder bridges over busy highways were lettered with the slogan “Train Yourself to Relax.”
Perhaps the most popular railroad image of all time was the sleeping kitten that adorned timetable covers, 料斗车, 日历, 中国餐车, and locomotives of the Chesapeake & 俄亥俄州 Railroad, and its successor, the Chessie System. 1933年，C&O first adopted the cuddly little kitten image, 命名她的“Chessie,” a popular nickname for the railroad. Chessie was first used to promote C&O的客运服务, and could often be found ensconced in a Pullman car underneath the words “Sleep Like A Kitten.这一形象持续了50年，并成为合并后的B公司的标志&O-C&直到1987年被CSX运输公司吸收.
早些年, burgeoning communities competed with each other to attract new railroads to their borders. One such competition created one of the most enduring railroad nicknames of all time. In 1881, the central 俄亥俄州 towns of Bellevue, 诺沃克, and New London all campaigned vigorously to be located on the main line of the under-construction New York, 芝加哥 & St. 路易铁路. Local newspapers fueled the debate, 强调了这条铁路对任何城镇的经济重要性. 在几篇文章, the 诺沃克 Chronicle began referring to the new railroad as “the great New York and St. Louis double-track nickel-plated railroad,” nickel-plated meaning an exemplary operation. The railroad soon began officially referring to itself as the Nickel Plate (later Nickel Plate Road), although it was the town of Bellevue, 不是诺沃克, 最终成为了铁路的路权和分部总部所在地.
Midwestern railroads make connections
中西部航空公司, which didn’t have the reach of big 西方 roads or serve the multitude of large cities found in the East, 在发展在线业务的同时竞争空中交通. Grain was a huge staple of many railroads. 不足为奇的是, their slogans often played up their role as a bridge route and their connections with other carriers.
Other Midwestern and southern railroads also used their geographic service areas in promotions, albeit with a bit more delineation than Burlington.
明尼阿波里斯市 & St. Louis’s rolling stock was lettered “The Peoria Gateway,而伊利诺斯州中央铁路公司则采用了“中美洲干线”的口号.“芝加哥，罗克岛 & Pacific was commonly shortened to the “Rock Island Line.“阿克伦,广州 & Youngstown was “俄亥俄州’s Road of Service.”
In 1940, 堪萨斯城南部(KCS)开通了从堪萨斯城到新奥尔良的“南方美女”客运列车. 与此同时，KCS还举办了宣传该列车的选美比赛. 18岁的路易斯安那州巴吞鲁日., girl, Margaret Landry, became “Miss Southern Belle.” Miss Landry became the spokeswoman for the new train, and was pictured on KCS timetable covers.
Other slogans promoted a carrier’s service. Missouri-Kansas-Texas (MKT) used “Count on Katy.在20世纪30年代和40年代，奥尔顿铁路从芝加哥到圣. Louis, and Kansas City was “The Only Way.”
芝加哥 & North 西方 stenciled “The Overland Route” on its boxcars, 以促进与西格尔布拉夫斯联合太平洋公司的良好关系, 爱荷华州, 和弗里蒙特, 内布拉斯加州.
芝加哥 & 西北大学独特的酒吧Ball and Bar首先在美国注册.S. 1891年的专利局. 现代标志“芝加哥和西北线”于1902年开始使用. In 1944, “Line” was changed to “System,” and in 1957 “System” was replaced by “Railway.” In 1972, 商标上的文字改为“西北员工所有”,” to reflect its corporate restructuring.
C&NW wasn’t the only transportation company to play up its ownership status in promotional material. 联合航空公司在1994年重组后也做了同样的事情, 是谁创造了世界上最大的员工持股公司.
Like their Midwestern counterparts, Southern railroads also emphasized their geographical service area and strategic connections.
乔治亚中部铁路公司经营着一系列横跨东南部的战略桥梁线路, 在地图上看, extended from Savannah like the fingers on a hand. CofG利用了这一意象, and public timetables showed an open hand with the words, 《满手有力的线条》.”
克林奇菲尔德推广了它的快速, low-grade main line through the Blue Ridge Mountains with a herald that proclaimed “Quick service-short route; Central West & 东南.”
海滨铁路公司有一个圆形的标志，里面有一个心，上面写着“穿过南方的心脏”.” Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis used the slogan “The Dixie Line.” Bridge line Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac reminded customers it was “Linking North and South.”
南方铁路公司使用了有节奏的“南方服务南方”.” In later years it adopted the slogan “Southern Gives a Green Light to Innovations,而南方的“O”代表绿色信号——这句口号适用于上世纪五六十年代拥抱机械化的铁路, introduced unit coal trains and new freight cars, and understood the 权力 of marketing.
For western roads: location, location, location
One of the most famous trademarks in railroading was Santa Fe’s cross and circle emblem, developed in 1901 by passenger agent J.J. 伯恩. 据报道，徽章象征着指南针的四个点, surrounded by the wheels of transportation with the words “Santa Fe” in the center.
When Santa Fe and Burlington Northern merged in 1995, 新的伯灵顿北方圣达菲铁路公司采用了改进版的圣达菲罗盘作为公司标志, carrying a tangible symbol of the past into the future.
在20世纪中期, 圣达菲推出了一系列口号，宣传芝加哥和加州之间的单线服务. “Santa Fe All The Way” was first used in 1940, followed by “Ship and Travel Santa Fe All The Way” in 1947. Combining such words with the red-and-silver diesel colors and “Chico” the fictional mascot, 圣达菲有效地创造了一个完整的形象，以帮助销售交通.
While visiting the 芝加哥 World’s Fair in 1893, E.H. 麦克亨利, Northern Pacific’s chief engineer, was impressed with the Korean exhibit, especially the Monad design on its flag. NP采用了中国古代的阴阳单——黑暗和光明代表永恒生命的象征——作为乘客的“好运”象征.
Other western railroads also used geographic imagery in their trademarks and advertising. 丹佛 & 大西部用的短语是“穿过落基山脉，而不是在他们周围。,在科罗拉多州风景如画的落基山脉中嬉戏.
西太平洋, partners in California Zephyr operations, ran the train through the spectacular Feather River Canyon in northeastern California, earning the title “Feather River Route.”
在1970年代, 密尔瓦基路以醒目的字体描绘了“美国足智多谋的铁路”, black letters on its yellow 料斗车.
南太平洋的日落勋章可以追溯到1876年，当时SP员工N.R. Olcott drew the original Medallion showing a pair of railroad tracks headed west towards a blazing sunset. The center bar originally carried the words “Sunset Route,”“奥格登的路线,”“沙士达山路线,或者三者的结合, depending on the advertising effect desired. By 1915, 设计被简化为“南太平洋航线”,1923年, 该勋章在加利福尼亚州注册为南太平洋公司的官方商标.
After investing nearly $2 billion in new equipment, 技术, 以及20世纪50年代的服务业, 加拿大国家航空公司(Canadian National)开始了一项视觉重新设计计划，使所有东西的外观都变得现代化，从发动机的油漆方案到连锁酒店员工的制服. 今天，这种营销手段被称为重塑品牌.
联合太平洋铁路公司创建了其著名的盾牌标志，作为力量的象征，并与公司的遗产与太平洋铁路法案. Signed by President Lincoln, the Act advanced UP’s construction and opened up the American West. First introduced in 1887, the UP shield is one of the oldest corporate logos in the United States.
In 1939, a new art deco variation of the logo featuring a pair of wings was introduced on an E3A diesel locomotive, 购买了铁路城市的流线型客运列车. 机翼很快成为北方邦所有出租车单元的标准装置.
今天, Union Pacific is returning the winged shield emblem to its current locomotive fleet, and – in a striking example of modern marketing – is the only railroad to stencil its web site, www.uprr.com, on the sides of its engines. Emblazoned with blue wings sweeping back from the red, white and blue shield, Union Pacific
gets high visibility in the new millennium.
Special thanks to the following individuals and organizations for help with this article. 圣达菲铁路历史 & 建模的社会 还有他们那本优秀的书 Trademarks of the Santa Fe Railway; New Haven Railroad Historical and Technical Association (Marc Frattasio); C&NW Historical Society (Joe Piersen); Fred Wallace, 哥伦布, Texas (Southern Pacific locomotive engineer-retired).