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Stranded streamliner

By | January 10, 2002

60年前,一场强烈的冬季风暴困住了226名乘客 City of San Francisco 内华达山脉

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从直升机上看到的被雪掩埋在唐纳山口的旧金山市.
Doug Wornom collection

60年前,1952年1月13日,横贯美国大陆的流线型客运列车 City of San Francisco encountered a raging blizzard with 90-mph wind gusts and snow drifts 8 to 12 feet deep that marooned the train high in the snow-swept Sierra Nevada mountains of California.

救援人员夜以继日地工作以到达被困的流线, 但事实证明,这场暴风雪对这些人和他们的打雪机来说太大了.

三天来,226名乘客和机组人员被困在火车上. This is the story of the heroic efforts by the Southern Pacific Railroad to free train No. 101 from “the Hill.”

Day 1, Sunday Jan. 13 – Snowbound

强烈的冬季风暴和创纪录的降雪在唐纳山口司空见惯, 南太平洋穿过sierra的路线. 自1844年被发现以来, 这条山间通道也有不少受害者, 包括一群定居者,这片山口就是以他们的名字命名的. (有关唐纳派对的更多信息,请参阅本文结尾处的注释.)

But in January 1952, 甚至是南太平洋的蒸汽驱动的大型旋转扫雪机, Jordan spreaders, 而弗兰格斯则很难维持萨克拉门托分区山区的开放.

而不是关闭线路, SP management made the decision to run its priority trains behind rotary plows dispatched to keep the route open. The westbound City of San Francisco该公司由南太平洋公司、联合太平洋公司和芝加哥公司联合运营 & North Western, 停在诺登的雪棚前——诺登是洼地的最高处,海拔将近七度,000 feet – and waited.

火车将从诺登向西行驶,向东行驶约15英里到达水晶湖. 在那里,它将穿过向西的轨道. 这和前一天的路线是一样的 City of San Francisco, 在离诺登十英里的西行主干道上,一场雪滑了下来, 然后被拖回山顶,沿着向东的轨道往山下走.

Just after 11:30 a.m., the passenger train, 动力由三个Alco PA机车与15节车厢, 一场猛烈的暴风雪向西袭来. At 12:15 p.m., the train hit two massive snow slides between Crystal Lake and Emigrant Gap at Milepost 176.一个叫Smart Ridge的地区. In lead unit No. 6019, engineer Tom Sapunor and fireman Gordon Painter tried to back up the train, but the City of San Francisco 被困在Sierra风暴中.

起初,乘客情绪高涨. 他们唱着像“我一直在铁路上工作”和“加利福尼亚,我来了”这样的歌曲,并拿这种情况开玩笑. 但随着夜幕降临,列车上的焦虑情绪越来越强烈.

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一架南太平洋的旋转扫雪机参与了救援工作, 在移民隘口外,它耗尽了燃料.
Southern Pacific

Roadmaster J. T. Fulbright had been aboard the train and hiked half a mile through the storm to a phone at Yuba Pass, 在那里他向铁路部门通报了旅客列车的情况. Relief rotary snowplows and heavy Mallet steam engines were immediately called from Norden and Emigrant Gap, 从第一号列车往下走6英里. 101.

试图连接到流线型的后方使用旋转号. 7222和驾驶室前方4-8-8-2号木槌. 并把搁浅的火车拉出来. 旋转犁和木槌, 从移民隘口往东派遣, 在东行的主干道上滚过了火车, 它被两条隧道保护着不受雪滑的影响, 然后穿过水晶湖. 他们到达流线型飞机尾部两车长度的范围内, 剩下的路只能用手挖. 车头与列车的尾部相连, but any further rescue attempt failed when the rotary suffered a broken air pump and derailed on ice.

另一次救援尝试是使用旋转号. 7205 and Mallet No. 4245. 船员们到达流线型的前端. 但当他们试图把火车拉出来时,它却纹丝不动.

The strong mountain wind, 有时能达到100英里/小时, 继续把雪吹下峡谷, covering the train. By evening the outside temperature was 22 degrees above zero, and the snow depth was 206 inches.

Day 2, Monday Jan. 14 – Donner Pass closed

In San Francisco, Southern Pacific officials continued to monitor weather bulletins and a coordinated rescue effort. 前一天晚上,一辆车尾跳载着35名工兵到达流线. 他们试图用手把火车挖出来.

到周一凌晨,旋转犁已经从两个方向工作,到达第一号列车. 101, but the terrible storm produced another tragedy when an avalanche fell on rotaries 7207 and 7208, 杀害工程师罗兰·雷蒙德. 唐纳山口向东和向西的主干道都被积雪覆盖, 四台旋转犁要么被雪埋了,要么无法使用.

No. 101的Alco柴油发动机继续运行, 提供steam-generated热, but eventually the onboard water supply for the locomotives’ boilers was depleted and the train was without heat.

By late Monday, Southern Pacific had made arrangements with the Sixth Army Headquarters in San Francisco for three Army snow “Weasels,” as well as doctors, medical supplies, food, 雪战装备的燃料, 和军队人员乘车前往科尔法克斯, Calif.

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南太平洋工段工人, 谁用手清理了开关和轨道, 在救援工作的第一线.
Southern Pacific

从科尔法克斯,设备被装载到工作列车Extra No号上. 6236 East. 计划是让f单元驱动的额外跟随旋转号. 7209号,周二正在东行. However, 旋翼在冲向10英尺深的雪堆时耗尽了燃料和水, 不得不回到Gold Run的支线上.

因为耕作进度延迟, 警司决定卸下黄鼠狼,让他们设法打通第一号. 101,医疗用品和食物. 不幸的是,黄鼠狼不能在松软的积雪中很好地行动, 陆军通知SP官员,他们的计划行不通.

Meanwhile, a group of volunteer skiers enlisted by the SP reached the train Monday night with a small amount of food and medical supplies.

Day 3, Tuesday Jan. 15 -船上情况恶化

Southern Pacific section men from Crystal Lake had managed to carry a portable generator to the train to help recharge the passenger cars’ batteries. However, by Tuesday carbon monoxide fumes from the generator was seeping into the cars and many passengers became ill. 发电机立即关掉,汽车的排气装置也被关掉了. Drapes from the car windows and bedding and pillowcases from the sleepers were used to wrap passengers’ legs for extra warmth.

与此同时,火车上的情况恶化了. Water in the pipes froze, and the cars’ batteries ran very low, so most of the cars had no lights. 由于供水不足,大多数厕所无法冲水. Latrine patrols were set up using buckets, and passengers had to take turns using the toilets.

In addition, 餐车里的食物快用完了, 于是首席乘务员爱德华·屈米开始配给食物, 为孩子们储存牛奶. 餐车炉子里的煤也快用完了, so wooden ladders from the sleepers and card tables from the club car were used as firewood.

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A Pacific, Gas & Electric Sno-Cat, the only machine that could cross the drifts and snowbanks in the high Sierras.
PG&E news bureau

2号班机上的乘客之一. 101 was Dr. 来自俄亥俄州的医生沃尔特·罗尔(Walter Roehll)陪同一位病人前往旧金山. 对Roehll来说,这一折磨意味着72小时几乎不间断地照顾生病的乘客. Luckily, 医生的包里有少量的药物和青霉素, 三名乘客出现上呼吸道感染. Five registered nurses also traveling on the train assisted Roehll with the sick passengers.

救援列车从内华达州里诺向西驶去.带着狗雪橇、补给和一名医生. 它是跟随第一号扶轮社. 7210 and Mallet No. 4173 west from Norden, but ice on the rail sent the rotary off the tracks west of Soda Springs. The doctor and supplies continued to the train on a dog sled, assisted by skiers and a Pacific Gas & Electric Company Sno-Cat.

到目前为止,风暴已经对南太平洋造成了损失, with one engineer killed, 四台旋耕机埋在雪里, and the City of San Francisco机上226名乘客和机组人员仍被困在山区. SP officials and workers were frustrated as they continued to face one obstacle after another in their attempts to rescue No. 101.

Day 4, Wednesday Jan. 16 – Rescue train

周三,风暴终于平息了. SP rotary No. 7220, brought in from the Portland Division – the oldest and last one running in the fleet – plowed west from Colfax to a highway overpass west of Emigrant Gap, 在尼亚克小屋附近.

一架带医生的海岸警卫队直升机, medical supplies, 食物试图从科尔法克斯飞到火车上, 但尤巴关口的强风阻止了直升机着陆. 然后,供给品被送到火车上.

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Passengers carefully make their way alongside the ice-encrusted streamliner on their way to safety.
Southern Pacific

加州公路局开设了美国公路管理局.S. 40号公路到移民盖普的尼亚克小屋. At 3:20 p.m.船上的乘客. 101人被带到高速公路上,然后由私家车开到5英里外的Nyack Lodge. There, SP officials had made arrangements to have everyone fed and encouraged passengers to send telegrams to their families. 南太平洋确保所有乘客的需求得到满足, 由于铁路部门竭尽全力营救被困列车, 乘客对SP的索赔很少.

随后,乘客们登上了一列由8张卧铺铺位组成的特别救援列车, 两辆满载餐车, a club car and a coach, led by four F7 diesels. The rescue train, with Southern Pacific doctors and volunteer nurses aboard, had followed rotary No. 7220 east from Colfax. 特别离开的移民Gap在8:30.m. 来到了加州的罗斯维尔., at 11:40 p.m.大部分工段人员和列车工作人员都是从这里出发的. 火车继续开往奥克兰,于周四凌晨3点41分到达.m.

船上的乘客 City of San Francisco,苦难终于结束了.

Day 5, Thursday Jan. 17 – Digging out No. 101

Beginning Thursday, 大约300名南太平洋劳工, bulldozers, 并引入大钩式起重机将搁浅的流线打捞出来. 起重机和推土机把这三台PA柴油机拆了出来, 然后推土机把车拉了出来, a few at a time, 还有被雪困住的旋转犁. 流线型、旋转器和木槌直到1月19日才被完全移除.

暴风雪掩埋了 City of San Francisco 对南太平洋来说非常昂贵, 包括付给工作人员的加班费和机车车辆的损失. 冰冷的水毁掉了引擎和汽车上所有的水管. 汽车上的滚子轴承卡车由于腐蚀而不得不更换, 而且大多数汽车都需要新的木制品, drapes, and curtains. The passenger cars were sent to the Pullman Company’s car repair shops in Richmond, Calif.而火车头则去SP的萨克拉门托商店进行大修.

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A rotary plow seen clearing a path near Emigrant Gap ahead of the rescue train on the afternoon of Jan. 16.
Southern Pacific

The storm also wreaked havoc on the railroad’s communication and signal lines over Donner Pass. SP signal maintainers were called in from other parts of the railroad to make repairs before the line was operational. 被风吹进隧道入口的雪必须挖出雪棚. 炸药被用来炸开在某些地方阻塞轨道的冰层.

1月22日又来了一场暴风雪. 直到1月26日,大约13天之后,一切才恢复正常 City of San Francisco first became stranded.

南太平洋已经与可怕的事件斗争了三天, 包括狂风, deep snow, freezing temperatures, avalanches, 并损失生命和救援旅客列车的设备.

SP President Donald Russell praised the entire railroad’s efforts during the three-day ordeal and said, “The storm will write another epic chapter in the history of the Southern Pacific Railroad.”

本文是1952年1月13日在旧金山市发生的事件摘要. For a more detailed account of this true story read “Snowbound Streamliner” by Robert Church (Signature Press).

The Donner party

南太平洋被雪困住的故事 City of San Francisco has similarities to that of the Donner Party of 1846 – arguably the most famous of the early emigrant groups to cross the Sierra Nevada mountains.

这个党是由男人组成的, women, elderly, and children, 由伊利诺伊州农民乔治和雅各布·唐纳领导. 大约90辆马车离开了伊利诺伊州斯普林菲尔德.在1846年4月,他有足够的时间在冬天之前穿越山区.

However, 他们沿着犹他州大盐湖南岸走了一条“捷径”, then into Nevada, 这被证明是他们的致命错误. They lost much time, suffered through desert conditions, and arrived at the base of the Sierras late.

Already out of provisions, 还要面对生病的动物和破旧的马车, 被围困的移民们选择穿过群山向前推进, 他们在哪里遇到了一场早雪. Demoralized, the party was forced to endure the winter in tents at Truckee Lake (which was later renamed Donner Lake).

Most of them did not have the will, skill, or the knowledge to hunt or fish in the harsh environment. 他们失去了所有的牲畜,也没有了食物. 近一半的人饿死了. For those that didn’t, the Donner Party stories of survival by boiling animal hides and even cannibalism are legendary.

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